A money related articulation is accumulation of information, which is efficiently and coherently sorted out as indicated by the bookkeeping standards. The monetary data about the substance is vital for various partners like stockholders, loan bosses, and the overall population. The administration board of trustees of an association requires money related information to make examination and translate the information for further basic leadership. To refer to an illustration, Rainbow-chem ventures display their accounting report in a vertical organization, which includes two classes i.e. wellsprings of assets and utilization of assets. Wellsprings of assets incorporate the assets raised from different sources like share capital, add up to saves, secured and unsecured advances and aggregate obligations. Utilization of assets means the capital use caused by the firm to buy long haul resources, accounts receivables and ventures. The Profit and Loss Account uncovers the standard salary and costs brought about by the firm at the year finishing money related year. The two principle devices of budgetary investigation are the proportion examination and assets stream examination. To decide the liquidity position of the firm the relationship between the present resources and current liabilities are concentrated on. Liquidity infers the firms capacity to pay off the obligations in the short run. In the event that the firm has adequate net working capital (overabundance of current resources over current liabilities) then it is expected to have enough liquidity. The liquidity proportion is controlled by partitioning the present resources/current liabilities. Current resources incorporate money, attractive securities, indebted individuals, inventories, propels and prepaid costs. Though, ebb and flow liabilities incorporate advances and advances acquired, exchange creditorsArticle Search, gathered costs and arrangements.
If you are involved in the running of the business, chances are you will have heard of PAT testing. There is no escaping the health and safety regulations in the UK that instruct all businesses, no matter how large or small, to ensure that their staff are free from harm at all times, and PAT testing is one way to meet said regulations concerning portable electrical appliances.
Portable Appliance Testing is essentially a process that involves checking each and every portable electrical appliance that is used by a company. Many different types of electrical equipment require this testing to be done on a regular basis (usually yearly) to ensure that workers are kept safe.
Keep reading now to learn more about the fundamentals of PAT testing, as well as the reasons why it is so important in our society.
What Is PAT Testing?
There are different types of PAT tests, from formal visual inspections to the use of one of many different types of PAT testing machines. Different tests are used by different companies, and for different electrical appliances. The majority of appliances owned by your company will be subject to several different checks to ensure absolute safety. For example, both the outside and inside of plugs will be checked, and all appliances will be visually inspected for any obvious signs of damage. Believe it or not, this check is commonly the one that forces many electrical appliances out of use as a health hazard.
Once each appliance has been checked by a certified PAT tester, a label will be attached to the plug, or around the cable close to the plug. This label will contain details of the date that the PAT test was completed, when the next test is due, and details of the company that actually perform the testing. A printout of the passes or fails of all appliances is usually also provided by the company, allowing the health and safety officer of the business to record the information accordingly.
Why PAT Test?
For some, PAT testing may seem like an inconvenient and expensive experience. Having people enter your business year after year, unplugging and inspecting every single item of equipment, from computers to telephones, coffee makers to fax machines, may not be something that you look forward to. PAT testing though is absolutely essential for UK businesses, because it really can reduce the risk of injury within many different workplaces.
Many electrical appliances are subject to strenuous use by many different employees. A gradual fault can develop into a large problem that could cause serious injury. Not only is this bad for business, and for a company’s reputation, but it could also cause lawsuits. As an employer, it is your responsibility to look after the well-being of your staff. PAT testing is usually not an expensive process (unless your organisation boasts a particularly large number of portable appliances), so it is certainly worth keeping on top of.
Continuing our discussion in green real estate or eco-friendly houses, we will be discussing how you can make your house more sustainable and self-sufficient. This is one of the best advantages that you can get from green real estates and is the reason why you need to check the house that you are trying to build. We will be starting this article by showing you how a sustainable eco-friendly house works up to how you can have in on your own without spending a lot of money.
Sustainable eco-friendly house refers to a house that is different from an average house. If an average house uses electricity and ordinary paint, eco-friendly houses use less energy and are using paint that can help reduce carbon in the air. When we say sustainable, it means that you will be building a house that can sustain its needs without requiring too much from you. There are a lot of options that you can take, but the easiest is to install solar panels and have it work for you.
Solar panels may cost a lot of money, but you are not required to have enough to support your need for electricity. All you have to do is to install a new one every 6 months to dramatically reduce your electric consumption. These panels are not cheap, but the amount that you can save from these panels will pay-off in the long run, especially if you are going to consider the fact that these panels could last up to 20 years. This will not only keep your house sustainable, but will also help you save more money in the long run. All you have to do is to choose the best type for you and you also need to consider your budget.
Another option that you can do in order to make your house more sustainable is by creating small gardens in your house. There are houses with large space for garden, while some where built with landscapes. But what if you don’t have these spaces to build your own garden? The answer is on your roof. If you are still planning your house, it would be better if you are going to create a rooftop where you can place your garden. This is where you will be planting, and build your own landscape. Not only will you be able to make your house more sustainable, but will also give you a place where you can relax.
It is true that there are dozens of things that you can do to make your house more sustainable and eco-friendly, but you need to make sure that it will also be beneficial for you. There are a lot of people who have spent hundreds of thousands of dollars to make their house more eco-friendly, but weren’t able to get the most out of it, simply because they are sure with what they are doing. It would be better if you are going to consult a professional before you start to implement the things that you want to have.
Typical portable electrical appliances found in a workplace include drills, hair dryers, vacuum cleaners, buffing machines, power saws, photocopiers and laptops, to name but a few! Electrical items that are not considered to be portable appliances include such things as ceiling lamps and cookers that are hard-wired into the mains supply.
There’s no legal requirement as such in UK law to PAT test electrical equipment, but it does come under health and safety law, in the form of the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989. These regulations require all electrical systems, including items of portable electrical equipment, to be maintained so they don’t become dangerous. PAT testing is a way to meet this requirement. There’s no legal timeframe as to when appliances should be tested and at what intervals, but many employers test appliances on an annual basis, or more frequently if they’re exposed to harsh conditions (e.g. used outdoors or in wet, hot or cold environments).
Ultimately, the frequency of testing should be determined by a risk assessment for each item of equipment. Risk assessments are a legal requirement, according to the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999. A good risk assessment for a piece of portable equipment must identify the main risks from using the equipment, to spot items at a greater risk of losing their integral safety through damage, misuse or degradation. The risk assessment must also put in place control measures to minimise risk. PAT testing is one example of a control measure to decrease risk. The higher the risks identified in the risk assessment, the more frequently PAT tests should be carried out, along with other control measures to decrease risk.
The actual testing procedure for portable appliances includes a visual inspection, as well as a test using a special PAT testing instrument. The visual test should check the condition of cables and wires, integrity of the casing and the plug. PAT test instruments carry out more detailed checks on equipment. Mains powered PAT testers are used, as well as battery operated testing devices. These are self-contained and easy to use. They perform an earth continuity test, insulation resistance test and a check on the wiring of the mains cord. They can also include tests that power up the appliance so it can be tested when connected to the mains supply. Most testing machines use a straightforward pass or fail result. As well as their pass and fail message, they have different settings for metal and plastic appliances, analysing earth continuity, polarity and insulation resistance.
More advanced PAT testing machines are available and are able to provide more detailed information about the appliance, with more sophisticated testing features. These are mainly aimed at more complex portable appliances with a higher element of risk when used at work. Advanced PAT testing devices display more information than a simple pass or fail message. Their earth continuity resistance test gives a more sophisticated measurement range and can cope with lower test currents, which enables a wider range of appliances to be tested (e.g. computers, which are sensitive to normal PAT testing). They can also carry out insulation resistance tests at voltages of 500 V DC and 250 V DC, earth leakage tests, fuse tests and lead polarity tests.
Of course, all results from a PAT test need to be interpreted by someone who’s competent to do so. Competency is defined in health and safety law as having sufficient knowledge, training, skills and experience to carry out a certain task correctly and safely. Visual inspections can be carried out by the equipment users themselves. Electricians have to pass stringent examinations to qualify for their trade and the readings from an official PAT test need to be interpreted and logged, which is usually best carried out by an electrician or someone who as enough skill and time to get around even the largest of workplaces. PAT testing makes up an important part of facilities management because it can record the location and safety status of portable electrical equipment. Most large employers contract out their PAT testing to an electrical contractor on an annual basis, to a company like Fluke Ireland.
Green real estate is considered as the most popular type of property that is being constructed nowadays. There are a lot of things that you can get from building these eco-friendly houses, but you still need to make sure that you are updated with the things that were being used to build these houses. In this article, we will be discussing some of the things that you need to include whenever you are planning to build eco-friendly houses. This will help you determine the things that you need to have, and will ensure that you are going to get better results. Read on to find out more about the trends that you can use whenever you are planning to build an eco-friendly house.
The most important part of a house is the roof, but did you know that green real estates are mostly made of solar panel roofs? These panels will allow you to convert the energy of the sun to electricity that will help you maintain the power of your house. This may cost more money on your side, but the amount that can be saved in the long run will be worth more than the amount that you have spent. Aside from this, you will also make your house self-sufficient, allowing you to have worry-free living. Just make sure that you are going to get a professional who will be installing your solar panels, because this will ensure that you will get the most out of your investment.
Another option that is commonly used by a lot of people who are building eco-friendly houses is the eco-friendly paint. There are different types of paint, but if you are planning to build your own green real estate, then it would be better if you are going to use the one that can absorb carbon in the air. This may not be too beneficial for you, personally, but if there are several hundreds of houses that use this kind of paint, the carbon in the air will be a lot less. This may cost more money on your side, but the results that you can get from it are worth more than the money that you are going to spend for the special paint that you will be using for your house.
The latest trend that is being used in most green real estate properties today is the roof garden. There are a lot of houses that have their own garden on their rooftop. Aside from having the ability to grow plants, you will also be able to help the environment by reducing the carbon in the air. This will also be beneficial for you, since you have a place that can provide you with fresh air. You no longer need to look for a property that has a huge lot, because your garden can be placed on top of your roof. This will not only help you save more money, but will provide you with a place that can help you relax.
A money related articulation is accumulation of information, which is efficiently and coherently sorted out as indicated by the bookkeeping standards. The monetary data about the substance is vital for various partners like stockholders, loan bosses, and the overall population. The administration board of trustees of an association requires money related information to make examination and translate the information for further basic leadership. To refer to an illustration, Rainbow-chem ventures display their accounting report in a vertical organization, which includes two classes i.e. wellsprings of assets and utilization of assets. Wellsprings of assets incorporate the assets raised from different sources like share capital, add up to saves, secured and unsecured advances and aggregate obligations.
Utilization of assets means the capital use caused by the firm to buy long haul resources, accounts receivables and ventures. The Profit and Loss Account uncovers the standard salary and costs brought about by the firm at the year finishing money related year. The two principle devices of budgetary investigation are the proportion examination and assets stream examination. To decide the liquidity position of the firm the relationship between the present resources and current liabilities are concentrated on. Liquidity infers the firms capacity to pay off the obligations in the short run. In the event that the firm has adequate net working capital (overabundance of current resources over current liabilities) then it is expected to have enough liquidity. The liquidity proportion is controlled by partitioning the present resources/current liabilities. Current resources incorporate money, attractive securities, indebted individuals, inventories, propels and prepaid costs. Though, ebb and flow liabilities incorporate advances and advances acquired, exchange creditorsArticle Search, gathered costs and arrangements.
Patting is a straightforward form of Chinese Massage Therapy for keep-fit enthusiasts falling into the category of External (Wei Dan) Qigong. Its effects can be somewhat more profound than simple skin rubbing approaches in the treatment of underlying conditions. Patting helps to strengthen the bones and tendons, encourages the development of muscle-tissue, lubricates joints, enhances the circulation of the blood and improves the metabolic functions. Patting, when applied to the torso, can improve the functions of the internal organs.
The exercises involve oneself only and the participatory activity thus generated leads to patting being considered superior to and more effective than ‘passive massage’ (i.e. massage which is performed upon you by third parties). After such exercises the body feels ‘lighter’ and more comfortable and the consciousness feels clearer. For more advanced or ‘serious’ patting enthusiasts a number of simple technical aids exist including sand and rice-bags.
Sample Patting Exercises
These can be performed with the palm, bottom of the fist or the simple equipment mentioned above. The exercises can be performed both walking and standing by assuming the following body positions.
1. Patting the Head
Drop your shoulders and elbows and smile. With your left palm pat the left-top of your head from front to rear 50 times then repeat the exercise 50 times with your right palm on the right-top similarly. Next do the same to the right and left sides of your head, keeping your mind calm and your breathing natural throughout.
Regular practice prevents and treats dizziness, headaches and deficiencies in blood supply to this area.
2. Patting the Arms
Using the same starting instructions pat each of the four sides of the left arm with the right palm from top-to-bottom 25 times in sequences of 5×5 to make 100 ‘pats’ in all before repeating the same sequence with the left palm on the right arm.
Regular practice prevents and treats poor muscle-growth of the upper arm, cyanosis of the lower arm and partial paralysis of the arm.
3. Patting the Legs
Standing erect, raise the left leg until it is at right angles to the right leg, using a chair, rail, fence, table or other convenient object for this purpose. Pat the leg on all four sides from thigh to foot in similar 5×5 sequences as outlined in 2 (above) then repeat the exercise with the other leg. When patting in sequences go from light to heavy within each round.
Regular practice prevents and treats numbness and lack of feeling in the lower limbs, maldevelopment of the leg muscles (and their paralysis and partial paralysis) and can help remedy certain walking difficulties (1).
(1) See ‘Keep Fit the Chinese Way’ by Hu Bin, Foreign Languages Press Beijing, for more detailed instructions.
Peter Allsop M.Ed., Shaolin Kung Fu and Qigong Teacher in Sheffield U.K. is a Senior Student of Grandmaster Yap Leong and Area Coach for his HYL (Health, Youth and Longevity) Energiser Qigong Programme. Iron Shirt and Longevity Training, 5 Elements Qigong are amongst the many Chinese Health and Fitness strategies that really work.
As the founder for a think tank which happens to operate online, I generally have the final say in who gets to join, and who doesn’t. I’ve been rather alarmed in recent years by the number of folks attempting to join who had taken environmentalism almost as some sort of religion without having all their facts straight. Further, far too many of them have been brainwashed by academia to the point that they don’t even really know the true definition of capitalism, and have in mind this nonsense that money is evil, and free markets aren’t fair.
Additionally, I am concerned with what happens when groups of like-minded people that do not understand reality get together in group-think designing what they believe to be the future utopia and epitome of human civilizations. They fail to realize their history, or how the real world works, rather they are more interested in talking about some sort of fantasyland, that someone else is going to pay for, and everyone is going to live happily ever after enjoying a heavenly existence. Okay so, let’s talk and let me give you a case study and example here.
There was an interesting research paper put out by Deutsche Post DHL, a Futurist type Report on logistics titled; “The World in 2050,” the press release appeared on February 27, 2012.
Anyway, the piece had an overview of 5-potential scenarios and in scenario one which is depicted as an; “Untamed Economy,” with “Impending Collapse” the article stated;
“The world is characterized by unchecked materialism and mass consumption. This non-sustainable way of life is fed by the relentless exploitation of resources, a development that stokes climate change and causes natural disasters to mount. In a world characterized by tumultuous growth, demand for logistics and transport services climbs sharply. A global transportation supergrid ensures a rapid exchange of goods between centers of consumption. But as climate change advances, supply chains are increasingly disrupted, a development causing additional challenges for logistics companies.”
Now then, I am not sure what type of fantasyland these folks are living in but I have some harsh and critical words for all this nonsense and global warming alarmism. You see, when I first heard about this report I was very excited in reading it, because I consider myself a Futurist in many regards, although I am not the type of Futurist who leans towards Plato utopian communistic theory. Further, to criticize consumption, is also to criticize capitalism, abundance, and all that the free-market can deliver.
It seems these utopians want to be free from want, and they want to make sure no one else can have what they want. That everyone should have only what they need to barely to survive, and nothing more, but that isn’t what the human animal is about, nor does it take into consideration the innate characteristics of the species. We can’t go around predicting the future without understanding the human animal. And we aren’t going to be able to change the brain structure or the foundational genetics within to make people happy as minimalists by wishful thinking.
Now then, that’s not saying we can’t use genetic manipulation, drugs, pharmaceuticals, or future modification of the species to do it. But in that future aren’t we really talking about turning human beings into a giant collective or Borg? Oh my gosh, 1984 here we come. As if all this nonsensical thinking wasn’t enough, these futurist have to throw in the whole global warming religion issue, claiming there will be dystopia, or we can never reach our goals unless we do it their way, which happens to be destroying our energy infrastructure, changing the economic flows of civilization globally, changing the way we consume, the way we live, and submitting to the ultimate authority, namely their’s.
It is interesting that the folks who were involved in this project, and this collaborative futurist work have played their hand, and now we see what they want to do, they want to control every aspect of our lives, tell us what we can and cannot have, hijack our energy infrastructure, and then promise us they will deliver what we need, which is what we will in the future agree to if we adopt their global warming religion. You only have to read between the lines just a little bit to see what’s going on here, and it should scare you. If it doesn’t scare you, I would submit to you that you are not paying attention.
In fact, most of the challenges we have in our economy, supply chain, and free-market system have to do with the same sorts of folks with their left leaning thinking trying to manipulate the flows of money, labor, production, and capital. It is obvious they want to do this well into the future, and if they aren’t allowed to, they claim that we are all going to die because of global warming, that we will live some sort of a terrible existence. Well, I have news for you, all those folks who have promoted a utopian society in the past, trying to create something that will last for 1000 years – well, we’ve all seen what has happened, and mankind is not the better for their exploits, and exploratory projects with human civilization.
The reality is that when you look at the United States and the free-market system, and as we practice capitalism to our best ability, although we do fall down at times, we have created massive abundance, and it’s worked quite well. This is the model we should follow, and anything to destroy this model is a threat to America’s future. If those folks want to run their little game plan, and create their little communist nation state, or the folks in Belgium want to create a unified Europe, then let them go try, but as I look out around the world now, I see their projects have failed time and time again. And personally I don’t think the United States should be bailing them out, or joining in cahoots with a nonsensical dream, or a new environmental religion.
It is obvious what works, and what hasn’t worked. Capitalism has worked, socialism and communism haven’t, and therefore we should all take notice and move forward into the future of humankind with that knowledge. We should not dismiss it, deny it, or trample on that truth. The problem with goody-two-shoed environmentalist futurism is that all their theories are flawed, and their foundation is baseless nonsense – it’s all a house of cards, and if you fall for it, the Joker of dystopia wins. Please consider all this and think on it.
Electrical appliances start off perfectly safe, but with use can deteriorate to an extent where there is a risk of an electric shock or a fire. Just as regular MOT checks ensure the safety of cars on the road, Portable Appliance Testing (or PAT to use the popular acronym) ensures that electrical appliances continue to be safe to use.
At first sight, PAT Testing looks quite technical and expensive, and as a result many companies either contract out this aspect of Health & Safety or ignore it altogether. However, a proper understanding of the requirements can lead to a safer workplace.
If testing is carried out “in-house”, a substantial saving in cost can be realised. This article aims to provide the reader with an understanding of PAT Testing and the background to it.
Portable appliance testing, or PAT Testing seems to have an aura of the “black arts” about it. As a result a lot of companies either ignore it altogether or sub-contract this aspect of Health & Safety implementation. However, a proper understanding of the requirements can lead to a safer workplace, and if in-house testing is carried out a substantial saving in cost. This article aims to provide the reader with a full understanding of PAT Testing and the background to it.
Design of electrical appliances
If appliances that use mains electricity should develop a fault the consequences to the user can be lethal. In the design of electrical appliances steps are taken to prevent this. It is always possible for appliances to become faulty. However, the design precautions taken are such that a single fault will not result in any danger to the user.
On appliances that have large areas of exposed metal, say a PC or an electric fire, this metal is connected to the Earth pin of the mains plug. The idea is that if high voltages should develop within the PC due to a single fault, this cannot reach the user, as the whole unit is enclosed in a “safe” earthed case. This type of protections is known as Class I.
The other way of providing protection is by the use of two separate layers of insulation. If a single fault resulted in the first layer of insulation being breached, then the second layer of protection is still available. This method is used in handheld appliances such as drills and hair dryers and is generally know as Class II.
Class II appliances are inherently safe and require less frequent testing. They are always indicated by the “double box” symbol.
PAT Testing Regulations
The European Low Voltage Directive governs the manufacture or importation of electrical appliances. Compliance to this has to be declared and indicated by the display of the CE mark on the product. The responsibility for this lies with the manufacturer or the importer and is policed by the Trading Standards.
However, like cars, it is important to have a maintenance regime for electrical appliances. The Electricity at Work Regulations (1989) requires that electrical appliances be maintained so that they remain safe during use. The implementation of this is up to employers. The HSE or the local authority is responsible for the policing of this.
Planning your PAT Testing
The first step is to make an inventory of all the electrical appliances. For every item, one needs to work out the frequency of the maintenance checks, based on the method of protection (i.e. Class I or II), the degree of portability and the environment it is used in.
For example appliances that are handheld whilst in use, such as hair-dryers need to be inspected more frequently than a PC monitor that is moved rarely. An electric fire in a factory needs to be inspected more frequently than one used in an office.
It is essential to prepare a Test Record for each appliance. As the maintenance program is carried out, results and comments can be recorded here. This can be invaluable evidence if there is an incident concerning an appliance and a compensation claim is made.
On completing the maintenance, the appliance has to be labelled. This has to indicate the date that testing has taken place and the date after which the appliance should not be used. Equipment that fails should be removed from use and marked appropriately.
Having looked at the regulations and spent some time planning, we need to develop a method of maintaining the appliances. The Health & Safety Executive (HSE) recommends three levels of maintenance actions.
Users need to be encouraged to look critically for signs of possible hazard every time they use electrical equipment. This can be done easily by making everyone aware of what is considered to be bad practice. A poster is one way of doing this. It is also good practice to introduce this as part of the induction process for new staff or at regular staff meetings.
Formal Visual Inspections
This is carried out at pre-determined intervals. It is quite straightforward and consists of visually inspecting the power cable, appliance and plug for any obvious problems and the results recorded. At this stage, it is important to open the plug and check that the wiring is sound. According to the HSE, this stage can result in more than 90% of potential problems being spotted. Some examples of faults that may be observed are shown below.
Combined Inspection and PAT Testing
This again is carried out at pre-determined intervals. For the checking of electrical safety, one will require a PAT Tester. There are many PAT Testers available but the ones with pass/fail indications are quite easy to use. All one has to do is plug the appliance into the tester, connect a test lead and press a button. The tester will carry out the required tests and indicate whether the appliance is safe or not.
In addition to the scheduled periods, testing needs to be carried out if there is reason to suspect that equipment may be faulty, and after repairs or any modification has been carried out.
PAT Testing in-house: Cost savings
If an establishment had 400 electrical items, this would result in an annual cost of about £1000 if this were to be contracted out. However, purchasing a PAT Tester for about £200 and having a firm understanding of the requirements, a comprehensive in-house safety strategy can be put in place. This will result in immediate savings. The option of renting a suitable PAT Tester costing about £75 a month, allows further cost savings.
As any UK business owner knows, Health & Safety inspectors can visit at any time to ensure safety measures are put in place in the workplace to reduce health and safety risks. The simple fact is if you don’t comply with the regulations set down by the Health & Safety Executive, you may face prosecution.
One area that requires attention is the safety of portable electrical items. The term ‘portable’ basically covers anything with a plug on it that can be moved around. Even in a small company, that can be a lot of equipment. Faulty electrical appliances, as we all know, can seriously damage your health or even be fatal!
One frequently asked question is how often you need to inspect each appliance. This varies, depending on usage and type of business. There are free guidelines available on frequency of inspection from the Health & Safety Executive or you can purchase a comprehensive book by the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE) called ‘Code of Practice for In-service Inspection and Testing of Electrical Equipment’. This book is a recommended read for anyone carrying out PAT testing.
One way to ensure these tests are being carried out satisfactorily is to carry out your own PAT testing with a ‘competent’ person/s assigned to do this. Apart from saving you costs for an electrician, you can carry out the testing at a time to suit your business – it’s not a once a year job either. There will be times throughout the year when you have equipment brought into the business that hasn’t had a PAT test. Take a residential care home for example. An elderly lady moves into the home and her well meaning daughter brings a portable TV in for her to use in her room, that TV needs to be inspected before use. Rather than call out an electrician to test these individual items, it makes sense to have your own competent person to carry out the test, label it and fill out the appropriate record sheet.
It’s not only good practice to PAT test, it is also something that more and more insurance companies will want to see evidence of having been carried out. If you were to claim for fire damage, they would want to know that you did all you could to protect yourselves from fire risk and this would include portable appliance testing. Good record keeping is essential to demonstrate you have been carrying out regular PAT Testing.
There is a fair bit of confusion about PAT testing and what defines a ‘competent’ person. To gain confidence in PAT testing, it is recommended that the person undergoes some training. Most suppliers of PAT testers offer training to help users become familiar with the process, ask questions and gain confidence in the machine they are using.